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Code of Research Ethics

Chapter 1: General Provision

Article 1. The title of the committee that deals with ethical issues of research on PAAL journals shall be the PAAL Research Ethics Committee (hereinafter referred to as the Committee).

Article 2. The Committee shall be under the command of the Pan-Pacific Applied Linguistics Association (PAAL) according to the PAAL Regulations.

Article 3. Purpose
PAAL Code of Research Ethics (hereinafter referred to as the Code) define the duties of authors, editors, and reviewers to maintain high ethical standards related to the submission, review, and publication of manuscripts.

Chapter 2: Organization

Article 1. The Committee shall be comprised of approximately 20 members including Chair and Executive Manager.

Article 2. The editor-in-chief holds the position of the chair of the Committee.

Article 3. The Executive Manager and other members of the Committee shall be appointed from among the officers of the PAAL's Board of Directors and Editorial Board by the PAAL's Co-Chair.

Chapter 3: Operation

Article 1. The Committee shall investigate any reports regarding violations of ethical standards in research articles submitted to or published in PAAL journals.

Article 2. If any violation is found, the Committee shall suggest that appropriate punishments or disciplinary actions should be imposed on the violator(s) by the President.

Chapter 4. Duties of Authors

Article 1. Acknowledgement of Sources
Author(s) shall have to provide explicit sources for citations of themselves or other authors cited in the manuscripts. Using the ideas, terms, reasoning, data, or method of data analysis of an original article without providing the sources explicitly or copying a good number of phrases or ideas from an original article without quotation marks despite providing the sources shall be regarded as plagiarism, and this case shall be submitted to the Committee.

Article 2. Prohibition of Repeated Publication
Author(s) shall not be allowed to submit to or publish in the Journal of Pan-Pacific Applied Linguistics any manuscripts which have been already submitted to or published in other journals. Repeated publication of research works without the Editorial Board's permission also shall be submitted to the Committee. If author(s) plan to republish an article in another journal, he/she must obtain proper permission from PAAL beforehand and provide specific source information including the volume, issue, and page numbers of the original work.

Chapter 5. Duties of the Editorial Board

Article 1. The Editorial Board shall request reviewers to review the manuscript with expertise, fairly and objectively.

Article 2. The Editorial Board shall keep information of the authors such as names and affiliations confidential until the final decision concerning the submitted manuscript has been made and informed to the authors.

Chapter 6. Duties of Reviewers

Article 1. Reviewers shall provide the chair of the Editorial Board review results after precisely reviewing the submitted manuscripts based on specific review criteria and submission guidelines of PAAL.

Article 2. Reviewers shall not disclose any information on the manuscript under review. In addition, citations of the manuscript before its publication are allowed only when the author agrees.

Chapter 7. Ethics Code Enforcement

Article 1. When any violations of research ethics regulations, such as plagiarism and repeated submission and publication, are reported, the Committee shall investigate and inform the Board of Directors of the investigation results, providing specific evidence of the breach, the defense of the author, and other relevant materials.

Article 2. The Committee shall provide the author with plentiful opportunities to make a defense ahead of taking punitive measures.

Article 3. Until verification of misconduct is complete, the Committee shall not reveal the name of the informer(s) or of the persons under investigation.

Article 4. When the Committee moves to take disciplinary action, the chair shall call for a board meeting. The Board will then decide upon the proper course of action based upon the findings of the Committee.

Article 5. If misconduct is verified or admitted, the author shall be banned from submitting other manuscripts to PAAL for three years. If the manuscript in breach of the regulations has already been published the manuscripts, it will be withdrawn from PAAL publications. Additional disciplinary actions can be proposed and passed at the board meeting such as warning, membership cancellation, and apology to the public.

Article 6. The violation investigation records shall be retained for five years after the inspection has been complete.

Article 7. The Code is amended based on the PAAL Bylaws, and PAAL Members are regarded as agreeing to new Regulations without signing procedures.

Article 21. Other details not specified in this code will be determined by the PAAL Board of Directors.

PAAL Code of Research Ethics Effective Date

The Code will be effective from March 1st, 2014.